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    Cosmetic Products Evaluation
    High School Lab Experiments & Background Information
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    This experiment is courtesy of 

    Applying Scientific
    Method To Analyzing


    Developers:

    Sister Frances Boyle RSM
    West Catholic High School
    Archdiocese of Philadelphia

    Dr. Eugene Dougherty
    Rohm and Haas Company
    Bristol, PA


    Grade Levels:

    Grades 10 through 12


    Disciplines:

    Chemistry


    Goals:

    To give students the opportunity to review the scientific method and basic laboratory skills learned in previous science classes.

    To show students how chemical employees, working in teams, follow the scientific method.

    To provide students with career information.

    To develop students as more informed consumers.


    Specific Objectives:

     

    The student will:

    1. Work in cooperative groups in activities related to chemical product development and testing.
    2. Learn about various job requirements and responsibilities in the chemical industry.
    3. Perform a literature search to determine properties of chemicals.
    4. Review concepts and laboratory procedures for percent solid, viscosity, pH, and conductivity.
    5. Evaluate competing cosmetic products.


    Background:

    Production of a successful product depends upon cooperation among a team of employees at Rohm and Haas. Together they apply the scientific method; most students have never really applied the scientific method to problem solving and have little experience in group learning. Therefore, the information and series of activities that follow are designed to acquaint the student with the scientific method in the chemical industry. Hopefully, this will motivate them to consider their own future and prepare for it now. Good work habits and skills in working with others will be useful to them in whatever career they pursue.

    The chemist activity could be used to review the use of the Merck Index and other sources of chemical compound information. If this is the first time the students use the Merck Index, it will take time for them to become familiar with the wealth of information in it. The abbreviations in it may not be immediately apparent to them. They may not be sure what information should be included in their report. The Van Nostrand Encyclopedia or other similar references may be used to clarify information from the Merck. If the class is too large to use the Merck at one time, this may be done as a large class activity using compounds from each group. Or some of the class can begin with the laboratory technician activities.

    The laboratory technician activities could serve as a good lab practicum after students have become acquainted with laboratory procedures for use of litmus and pH paper, the laboratory balance and drying oven, conductivity apparatus and viscosity measurement techniques.

    The experience of repeated testing and comparison in the product analysis activity gives the student a taste of the extent of testing a product is put through before it goes on the market. Finally, the activities of the marketing representative suggest the scope of chemistry-related careers.

    The activities are planned for five class days with a preliminary report day (after enough time has elapsed to test the product) and a final wrap-up day when marketing skits and/or posters are presented and final evaluations of the products are written.


    Introduction:

    DAY 1 (Teacher reads with class)

    A high school chemistry class is interested in learning about chemistry as it is carried out in the chemical industry. The class invited a local chemical company to send information on the methods and skills they use in product development and testing. The class suggested a comparison of two competing consumer products be used in an illustration of these methods and skills. The four packets of information from the chemical company each begin with an employee job description - chemist, laboratory technician, product analyst and a marketing representative. A brief description of educational background is given. Then the students are invited to perform a task related to the role of the employee being presented. To prepare for the activities, the teacher divides the class into four groups. She/he explains cooperative learning and assigns one of the following roles to the students for Activity 1:

    Principal Investigator - responsible for getting group started and keeping everyone on task.

    Materials Manager - bring needed equipment to work site, e.g., this activity needs loose leaf paper for report and names of group members need to be on paper.

    Recorder/reporter - record data and group answers and report results to class, e.g., what class of chemical compounds each group of students will test, what brands will be tested and who will bring in the samples the next day.

    Monitor/checker - keep time and be sure that total group is involved in activity.

    ACTIVITY 1 - Cosmetics - Comparison of Competitive Products
    (Students perform the following activity in their groups of four.)

    Each group picks a class of cosmetics that contains at least two (2) chemicals, for example:

    shampoo

    liquid soap

    toothpaste

    mousse

    deodorant

    bubble bath

    The cosmetics class must have at least two (2) competing products that each group member is willing to use at least five times. For example:

    Pert� vs. Neutrogena� for shampoo.

    At the end of the activity, the teacher reassembles the students, invites the recorder/reporter to name the products being tested, and reminds students to bring samples tomorrow.

    DAY 2 THE CHEMIST - (read with entire class)

    With an advanced degree in chemistry and a background in science and computing, the chemist has the educational tools needed to respond to customer requests. Generally, marketing puts the chemist in contact with these requests. The chemist spends much initial time searching the literature to find what has been tried on the subject. Compounds and their properties as well as possible chemical procedures are reviewed. The chemists develops ideas into working hypotheses (educated guesses) that are tested by experiments carried out by the laboratory technician.

    ACTIVITY 2 - The Chemist Gathers Information

    Complete the chart for Activity 2 by making a list of the compounds in both of the consumer products you have chosen. Search the organic compounds in your textbook, the Merck Index and other references, and write the type of compound/function of each compound next to it. Is it a soap? a salt? a dye? a colorant? Many manufacturers provide "1-800" numbers for obtaining information on their consumer products on the label.

    Here is an example for Activity 2:

    Product Name - "Crest �- Cool Mint Gel"

    Producer - Procter and Gamble

    Ingredient

    Type of Compound/Function

    Sodium flouride

    Inorganic ionic salt fights tooth decay

    The teacher assembles the students in the same groups they were in yesterday. The teacher reminds the groups that they will perform an information gathering activity that a chemist would perform in producing the cosmetic product.

    The following task is assigned:

    1. Choose a "chemist" to be the principal investigator for the day and assign other students to roles of materials manager, recorder/reporter, and monitor/checker.
    2. Students in role of chemist reminds other group members of their roles as materials manager, recorder/reporter and monitor/checker.
    3. The "chemist" organizes the group to complete the next two pages.

    Please complete the following chart for your products.

     

    PRODUCT A

    Product Name:

    Producer:

    Ingredient

    Type of Compound/Function

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    PRODUCT B

    Product Name:

    Producer:

    Ingredient

    Type of Compound/Function

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    QUESTIONS

    1. Are any of the ingredients toxic? In what way? Are there any skin irritants, poisons?


    2. How do the ingredients differ in the competing products you choose? Are there major differences? Only minor differences?


    3. Are these products protected by patent(s)? If so, what number is the patent? Is it protected by trade secret?

    DAY 3 (and 4 if needed)

    THE LABORATORY TECHNICIAN (read in large class group)

    The Laboratory Technician may or may not have a bachelor's degree in chemistry or biology. The Laboratory Technician has excellent laboratory skills needed to carry out the experimental procedures outlined by the chemist. The technician patiently makes adjustments and discusses results with the chemist until a consistent as well as desirable product is formed. A reproducible process can be scaled-up for plant production if marketing demand is sufficiently high.

    ACTIVITY 3  Laboratory Technition at Work

    Complete at least two (2) of the tests for physical properties listed in ACTIVITY 3 charts, i.e., pH, viscosity, solid content, conductivity. Remember to use good laboratory technique.

    Divide the group of four (4) into teams of two (2). Each team is to perform the experiments and compare the results for reproducibility.

    Here is an example of ACTIVITY 3:

    Product: Scope�

    Producer: Procter and Gamble

    1. pH determination

    a. Place a piece of red litmus and a piece of blue litmus paper on a watch glass. Dip a clean stirring rod into the mouthwash and touch each piece of litmus paper. Record the color and classify the substance as an acid or a base.

    Team A

    Team B

    Color

    red

    red

    Acid/base

    acid

    acid

    b. Using the results above, place a strip of the appropriate range pH paper on a watch glass. Dip the clean stirring rod in the mouthwash and touch it to the pH strip. Record the color and pH.

    Team A

    Team B

    Color

    gold

    gold

    pH

    6

    6


    c. Repeat "a" and "b" if there is not agreement in the result.

    The teacher may also want to review procedures for viscosity, percent solids and conductivity as outlined in the following section.

    The teacher assembles the students in the same groups they were in yesterday. The teacher reminds the groups that they will perform lab activities similar to checks that a laboratory technician would make on the experimental process.


    The following task is assigned:

    1. Choose a "laboratory technician" to be the principal investigator for the day and assign other students to roles of materials manager, recorder/reporter and monitor/checker.
    2. Student in role of laboratory technician reminds other group members of their roles as materials manager, recorder/reporter and monitor/checker.
    3. The laboratory technician organizes the group to complete the next five pages.



     

    Material:

    COMPLETE AT LEAST TWO OF THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES
    FOR EACH OF YOUR PRODUCTS.

    1. pH Determination

    (per team) watch glass, stirring rod, red and blue litmus paper, pH paper

    PRODUCT A

    Product

    Color

    Color

    Producer

    Acid/Base

    pH

    a. Place a pice of red litmus and a piece of blue litmus paper on a watch glass. Dip a clean stirring rod into the product (or the product dissolved in a small amount of distilled water) and touch each piece of litmus paper. Record the color (allowing for the influence of the color of the product being tested and classify the substance as an acid or a base).

    b. If your product is an acid, place a strip of pH paper, range 1-7 on a watch glass. If your product is a base, place a strip of pH paper, range 7-14 on a watch glass. Dip the clean stirring rod in the product and touch it to the pH strip. Record the color and pH.

    c. Repeat "a" and "b" if there is not agreement in the result.

    PRODUCT B

    Product

    Color

    Color

    Producer

    Acid/Base

    pH

    a. Place a piece of red litmus and a piece of blue litmus paper on a watch glass. Dip a clean stirring rod into the product and touch each piece of litmus paper. Record the color and classify the substance as an acid or a base.

    b. If your product is an acid, place a strip of pH paper, range 1-7 on a watch glass. If your product is a base, place a strip of pH paper, range 7-14 on a watch glass. Dip the clean stirring rod in the product and touch it to the pH strip. Record the color and pH.

    c. Repeat "a" and "b" if there is not agreement in the result.


    2. Viscosity Determination

    Relative viscosity can be determined by measuring the time required for a small plastic bead to fall through liquid confined in an inverted test tube and comparing it to the time for the bead to fall through water in a similar test tube. Water will be the standard.

    Materials:

    Three (3) small test tubes with stoppers, small plastic beads, watch with second hand, grease marking pencil, water, Products A & B

    a. Fill one (1) of the test tubes with water. Drop in a plastic bead and allow it to settle. Stopper the test tube. Invert the test tube and measure the time for the bead to fall to the other end. Record the time in the table below.

    b.Fill the other two (2) test tubes, one with Product A and the other with Product B and test and record results as above.

    Time (sec)
    for bead
    to fall

    Water

    Product A

    Product B

    c. Compute relative viscosity.

    Time in Product A/Time in water =

    Time in Product B/Time in water =

    3. Solids Content

    If the products you are testing are nonflammable, they may be placed in a laboratory oven at 150� F for a class period (or less, if the solid starts to turn brown) to drive off the water.

    Materials:

     

    Two (2) aluminum weighing pans, balance, oven, Products A & B

    a. Label the aluminum pans "A" and "B" respectively.

    b. Find the mass of each pan

    Mass of empty pan "A" =                     grams

    Mass of empty pan "B" =                     grams

    c. Add about one (1) gram of Product A to correctly marked aluminum pan. Do the same with Product B.

    Mass of pan + "A" =                     grams

    Mass of pan + "B" =                     grams

    d. Find the original masses of Products "A" and "B."

    Mass of pan + "A" =                     grams

    Mass of empty pan "A" =                 grams

     

    Original Mass of "A" =                   grams

     

    Mass of pan + "B" =                     grams

    Mass of empty pan "B" =                 grams

     

    Original Mass of "B" =                   grams

    e. Place the aluminum pans with samples in the oven. Check about every ten (10) minutes and remove after thirty (30) minutes or earlier if sample turns brown. Allow to cool. Reweigh.

    Mass of pan + residue "A" =                 grams

    Mass of pan + residue "B" =                 grams

     

    f. Find the mass of residues "A" and "B"

    Mass of pan + residue "A" =                 grams

    - Mass of empty pan "A" =                  grams

     

    Mass of Residue "A" =                    grams

     

    Mass of pan + residue "B" =                  grams

    - Mass of empty pan "B" =                  grams

     

    Mass of Residue "B" =                    grams

     

    g. Find the percent solids in Products "A" and "B."

    Mass of residue "A" =                 grams       x 100 = % Solids in "A"

    Original Mass of "A" =                 grams

    Mass of residue "B" =                grams       x 100 = % Solids in "B"

    Original Mass of "B" =                grams

     

    Materials:

    4. Conductivity

    conductivity apparatus, two (2) nonconducting containers

    Place Product A and Product B in separate nonconducting containers. With the approval of your teacher, carefully bring the conductivity apparatus probes into contact with Products A and B. Record results.

    Product A ________________________

    Product B ________________________

     

    Questions:

    Do any of these physical properties affect the performance of the product?

    ___________________________________________________________

    ___________________________________________________________

    ___________________________________________________________

    DAY 4 (Introduced before Laboratory Technician activities are completed)

    PRODUCT ANALYST (read in large class group)

    The Product Analyst or Application Chemist needs a strong background in chemistry and communication The role of the Product/Analyst or Application Chemist is to figure out a quick test to see if the product is satisfactory before it is marketed. If there is a problem after marketing, the customer complaint and sample will come to the product analyst. She/he will then need to facilitate communication with the originating chemist, laboratory technician and any support personnel needed to improve the product. She/he then communicates the results to a marketing representative.

    ACTIVITY 4 - Product Testing Initiated By Producted Analyst

    Each team member should agree to use the two (2) competing consumer products chosen by the team. For example, each should use the shampoo or toothpaste at least four or five times (enough to get a statistically meaningful result). Then each team member should rate the product on a scale of "1" to "10." Criteria for the rating may be taste, performance, ease of application, smell, etc.

    Here is a sample rating:

    Product:

    Speed Stick�

    Producer:

    Mennen

    Dates product was used:

    August 19, 20, 21, 22, 23

    Rating:

    "7"

    Reasons for rating:

    Rather effective as anti-perspirant and deodorant
    Easy to use until you reach the very end
    Gentle on skin (warning about broken skin)
    Non-staining
    Address of company included on packaging

    The teacher reviews next pages with the class group. Point out that the results of individual testing will be gathered by the project analyst on the preliminary report day at the end of the product testing period.

    On the preliminary report day, the teacher assembles the students in the same groups they were in previously. He/she reminds the group that they will perform customer satisfaction tests similar to checks that a product analyst would make on the product.

    The following task is assigned:

    1. Choose a "product analyst" to be the principal investigator for the day and assign other students to roles of materials manager, recorder/reporter and monitor/checker.
    2. Student in role of product analyst reminds other group members of their roles as materials manager, recorder/reporter and monitor/checker.
    3. The product analyst organizes the group to complete the next sections.

    PRODUCT A:

    Product: ________________________

    Producer: ________________________

    Team Member

    Dates Used

    Rating

    Reasons for Rating

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    PRODUCT B:

    Product: ________________________

    Producer: ________________________

    Team Member

    Dates Used

    Rating

    Reasons for Rating

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    1. Is one product clearly superior to the other? Did all members agree on their rating?

    2. Are advertising claims for the product justifiable based on your data?

    DAY 5

    Marketing Representative (read in large class group)

    To link the customer and products from the chemical company, the Marketing Representative has scientific as well as business background. He/she presents customer needs and problems to the chemist. The chemist works with laboratory technician as well as many other support staff to meet those needs.

    Once a suitable product is produced, marketing must establish a price which reflects research and development as well as production costs, market demand, and a fair profit for the company.

    The teacher assembles the students in the same groups they were in yesterday. He/she reminds the group that they will perform tasks similar to those of a marketing representative.


    The following task is assigned:

    1. Choose a "marketing representative" to be the principal investigator for the day and assign other students to roles of materials manager, recorder/reporter, and monitor/checker.
    2. Student in role of marketing representative reminds other group members of their roles as materials manager, recorder/reporter and monitor/checker.
    3. The marketing representative organizes the group to complete the next page.

     

    Product A

    Product: ___________________

    Producer: ___________________

    a. Grams/ounces of product:

    b. Find the total price of the product:

    c. Divide the price of each product you used by the number of grams of product in that package.

    Total price/ounce or gram of product =

    Product B

    Product: ___________________

    Producer: ___________________

    a. Grams/ounces of product:

    b. Find the total price of the product.

    Total price:

    c. Divide the price of each product you used by the number of grams/ounces of product in that package.

    Total price/gram or ounce of product =

     

    Questions:

    1. Do you consider Product A to have a fair selling price? Product B?

     

     

    2. Do you think that Product A is packaged correctly? Product B?

     

     

    3. What marketing strategies would you use to introduce Product A? Product B? Advertising? Product claims? Focus groups? Test marketing?


    ACTIVITY

    Assign a group project to be done outside of class - either an advertising poster and/or skit to be shown/performed for the class after the final evaluation of the product.

    DAY 6 - Preliminary Report Day

    LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION OF PRODUCT (read with entire class)

    In the pilot plant, the experiment is scaled up from laboratory size vessels of typically 5 liters to plant-scale vessels of 500 gallons. Any problems with the enlarged chemical process are analyzed and, if possible, corrected with input and discussion of chemist and laboratory technician.

    The sample batches are converted into proposed products and tested for consistent and desirable properties. Again, any problems are hopefully resolved with the chemist and laboratory technician team. If the product has measured up to the required quality control, large scale manufacturing begins in vessels in the range of 12,000 gallons. The chemist and laboratory technician again work with plant operators to make any needed adjustments and ensure quality control.

    On the preliminary report day, the teacher assembles the students in the same groups they were in previously. He/she reminds the group that they will perform customer satisfaction tests similar to checks that a product analyst would make on the product.

    The following task is assigned:

    1. Choose a "product analyst" to be the principal investigator for the day and assign other students to roles of materials manager, recorder/reporter, and monitor/checker.
    2. Student in role of product analyst reminds other group embers of their roles as materials manager, recorder/reporter and monitor/checker.
    3. The product analyst organizes the group to complete the product analyst pages and the final evaluation of the product that follows.

    FINAL EVALUATION OF PRODUCTS A & B

    Based on all your research, write a final evaluation of Product A & B.


    This experiment is courtesy of 



    My Dog Kelly

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