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Charles Babbage (1791–1871) originated the concept of a programmable computer
George Boole (1815–1864) is the inventor of Boolean logic - the basis of modern digital computer logic
Robert Boyle (1627–1691): Boyle's law
Henry Cavendish (1731–1810): Weighing the Earth
Francis Crick (1916–2004): co-discoverer (with James D. Watson) of the structure of the DNA molecule, the double-helix, in 1953.
John Dalton (1766–1844): modern atomic theory and colour blindness
Charles Darwin (1809–1882): founder of the theory of evolution
Paul Dirac (1902–1984): fundamental contributions to quantum theory
Michael Faraday (1791–1867): Faraday's law of induction, Faraday's laws of electrolysis, Faraday cage
Rosalind Franklin (1920–1958): X-ray crystallographer who made critical contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA
Stephen Hawking (1942 -): black holes, cosmology
John Herschel (1792–1871: discovered seven moons of Saturn and four moons of Uranus.
Robert Hooke (1635–1703): Hooke's law of elasticity, microscopy, coined the word 'cell' for describing biological organisms
Edward Jenner (1749–1823): smallpox vaccine
James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879): Maxwell's equations that describe the properties of electric and magnetic fields and their interactions with matter.
James Prescott Joule (1818–1889): First Law of Thermodynamics, Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
Joseph Lister (1827–1912): Surgical sterile techniques
Sir Charles Lyell (1797–1875): promoted the idea that the earth was shaped by slow-moving forces still in operation today (uniformitarianism).
Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727): differential and integral calculus, universal gravitation, telescope, white light composition, mechanics
Joseph Priestley (1733–1804): contributions to the discovery of oxygen and photosynthesis
J. J. Thomson (1856–1940): discovery of electron
William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) (1824 - 1907): formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics
Alan Turing (1912–1954): Turing machine which played a significant role in the creation of the modern computer
Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913): independently proposing a theory of evolution due to natural selection that prompted Charles Darwin to publish his own theory.
Thomas Young (1773–1829): The Double Slit Experiment
British Scientists and Inventors - Elementary/Middle School Level
The Scottish Science Hall of Fame - The National Library of Scotland
British Scientists and Inventors - Middle/High School Level
Famous British Earth Scientists - about.com
Victorian Science, Scientists and Technology