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    Russian Scientists, Inventors and Explorers





    Russian Physicists
    Alexander Friedman (1888 – 1925), Russian physicist and mathematician: derived from Einstein's general relativity field equations that the universe is expanding.

    Vitaly Ginzburg * (1916 - 2009), Soviet theoretical physicist, member of the Soviet and Russian Academies of Sciences and one of the fathers of Soviet hydrogen bomb.

    Abram Ioffe (1880 - 1960), a prominent Soviet physicist and director of the Leningrad Physical-Technical Institute (LPTI): a mobile radar system was developed under Ioffe’s direction and designated Redut (Redoubt) giving 50KW peak-power, 10-μs pulse-duration, 150Km range detection and Yagi antennas that were used for both transmitting and receiving.

    Heinrich Lenz (1804 - 1865), physicist: formulated Lenz's law in electrodynamics in 1833.

    Lev Landau * (1908 - 1968), Soviet physicist: made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics including quantum mechanics.

    Andrei Sakharov * (1921 - 1989), nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist: considered as the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb.

    George Zweig * (born 1937 - ), Russian-American elementary particle physicist: proposed the quark model (with Murray Gell-Mann, American).

    Abram Ioffe (1880 - 1960), a prominent Soviet physicist and director of the Leningrad Physical-Technical Institute (LPTI): a mobile radar system was developed under Ioffe’s direction and designated Redut (Redoubt) giving 50KW peak-power, 10-μs pulse-duration, 150Km range detection and Yagi antennas that were used for both transmitting and receiving.

    * Nobel laureates

    Military and Aviation Technologists
    Oleg Antonov (1906 - 1984), aircraft designer: the founder of Antonov ASTC - a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturer with particular expertise in the field of very large aircraft construction.

    Yuri Gagarin (1934 - 1968), pilot and cosmonaut: the first man in space - Vostok 1 mission.

    Abram Ioffe (1880 - 1960), a prominent Soviet physicist and director of the Leningrad Physical-Technical Institute (LPTI): a mobile radar system was developed under Ioffe’s direction and designated Redut (Redoubt) giving 50KW peak-power, 10-μs pulse-duration, 150Km range detection and Yagi antennas that were used for both transmitting and receiving.

    Igor Sikorsky (1889 - 1972), Russian-American pioneer of aviation in both helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. In 1939 Sikorsky designed and flew the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300, the first viable American helicopter, which pioneered the rotor configuration used by most helicopters today.

    Abram Slutskin (1881–1950), Russian scientist: developed an early version cavity magnetron (a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves) and used these devices in early radio-location (radar) systems.

    Valentina Tereshkova: (1937 - ) Soviet cosmonaut: the first woman and civilian to fly in space - Vostok 6 mission on 16 June, 1963.


    Russian Mathematicians
    Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792 - 1856), Russian mathematician and geometer: renowned for his pioneering works on hyperbolic geometry - the Lobachevskian geometry (non-Euclidean geometry).

    Andrey Markov (1856 - 1922), Russian mathematician: best known for his Markov chains which have many applications as statistical models of real-world processes.

    Grigori Perelman (1966 - ), Russian mathematician: made landmark contributions to Riemannian geometry and geometric topology. Solved the Poincaré conjecture in 2003.

    Alexander Friedman (1888 – 1925), Russian physicist and mathematician: derived from Einstein's general relativity field equations that the universe is expanding.


    Russian Inventors
    Vladimir Zworykin (1889 - 1982), Russian-American inventor, engineer, and pioneer of television technology: invented television employing cathode ray tubes.

    Alexander Popov (1859 - 1906), Russian physicist and prominent radio pioneer.

    Pavel Schilling (1780 - 1837): In 1828 he demonstrated a pioneering electrical telegraph. It consisted of a single needle system which used a telegraph code to indicate the characters in a message.

    Abram Ioffe (1880 - 1960), a prominent Soviet physicist and director of the Leningrad Physical-Technical Institute (LPTI): a mobile radar system was developed under Ioffe’s direction and designated Redut (Redoubt) giving 50KW peak-power, 10-μs pulse-duration, 150Km range detection and Yagi antennas that were used for both transmitting and receiving.


    Russian Biologists
    Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky (1864-1920), Russian botanist: discovered viruses - the tobacco mosaic virus in 1892.

    Vladimir Vernadsky (1869–1939), Russian-Ukrainian mineralogist and geochemist: founded the biosphere concept hypothesizing that life is the geological force that shapes the earth.

    Sergei Winogradsky (1856 - 1953), Ukrainian-Russian microbiologist: discovered sulfur-oxidizing bacteria - found that Beggiatoa (bacteria) oxidized hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an energy source.


    Russian Computer Scientists
    Eugene Kaspersky (1965 - ), specialist in the information security field: co-founded the Kaspersky Lab, a privately held international company that produces antivirus and other computer security products, since 1997.


    Russian Linguists
    Mikhail Lomonosov (1711 - 1765), Russian polymath: contributed to chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. Lomonosov was also a poet, who created the basis of the modern Russian literary language.

    Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof (1859 - 1917): the creator of Esperanto, the most successful constructed language designed for international communication.


    Russian Chemists
    Mikhail Lomonosov (1711 - 1765), Russian polymath: contributed to chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. Lomonosov was also a poet, who created the basis of the modern Russian literary language.

    Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907), chemist: discovered periodic law and invented the modern periodic table as it is known today.


    Russian Explorers
    Afanasy Nikitin (15th century), merchant and explorer: one of the first Europeans to travel to and document his visit to India.


    Russian Psychologists
    Ivan Pavlov * (1849 - 1936), Russian mathematician and psychologist: used dogs to demonstrate classical conditioning - when a bell ring is repeatedly paired with food the outcome is salivation. After some time the bell begins also to trigger salivation without the presence of food.

    * Nobel laureates

    Russian Anthropologists
    Tatiana Proskouriakoff (1909 - 1985), Russian-American Mayanist scholar and archaeologist: contributed significantly to the decipherment of Maya hieroglyphs, the writing system of the Maya civilization.

    * Nobel laureates

    Russian Science and Invention Biographies
    Prominent Russian Scientists - Wikipedia
    Cosmonaut Biographies - NASA
    Who is who in Russian High Energy & Nuclear Physics - RuHEP-NP
    List of Russian scientists - Wikipedia
    Russian Nobel laureates - Wikipedia
    Russian Nobel Laureates - Nobel Foundation
    Top Russian inventions that changed the world - Russia & India Report
    List of Russian inventors

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